Bitcoin anonymity – myth or bitter half-truth

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The false lure of anonymity

One of the strangest things for me comes from the retrogression into things like proof of stake and the associated failed models of cryptocurrency. When I was working on Blacknet in 2005 and 2006, I stumbled upon what later became the solution to Bitcoin and the problems that I saw. DigiCash released eCash in the 1990s. It was a form of cryptocurrency that was more anonymous than Zcash or Monero, and it is nowhere to be found anymore. In part, the failure stems from an attack against the founding organisation, but it should also be noted that eCash continued even after the bankruptcy of David Chaum’s company. Creating a distributed group is not the solution people believe it to be. The problem is that they are not looking at the correct answer.

Many individuals acting in a distributed group on the same software program that is not a protocol that is fixed and immutable are in fact what everyone loves to call centralised. If we for instance take Zcash or Monero, or even Ethereum, every one of them comes back to a simple case of one organisation. Even where people love to say, “but we are decentralised,” they end in a single instance of an organisation. They neglect to note that they are under law an unlimited partnership.

Unfortunately, I have lost track of how much or little people know, especially when looking across disciplines. I have studied law, economics, computer science, history, mathematics, and even theology and ethics, and my greatest failure in doing so has been losing track of the understanding of the average person.

I did a master’s degree in statistics, in part to learn what I know now and also to understand propagation methodologies. It was during my studies that I first read a paper called “Ultrafast Consensus in Small-World Networks” [1]. Following the discovery, I spent years going down the rabbit hole of Newman and Watts [3]. The node structure in Bitcoin is linked to the ledger. Blacknet was a dead end not because it didn’t work but because some of the earlier methodologies that are completely separate to Bitcoin now worked anonymously. An anonymous system will never be scaled to the world. At best, an anonymous system forms a methodology for black markets and illicit and illegal trade. I was never interested in creating a dark-web money.

Bitcoin needed to be private and yet easy to stop or control such that illegal and illicit activity could be stopped at scale. Bitcoin as such forms what some have called a Mandela network. Miners, as they are now called, form the nodes. There is no such thing as such a node, as in the system, it doesn’t work the same way. If you read the Bitcoin white paper on page 3, section 5 details it incredibly well in my opinion. The first point I put in section 5 is that “new transactions are broadcast to all nodes.”

Nodes can come and go, and they can choose how they interact with the system, but a node is not a wallet. What they do is validate transactions in the order of time in which they have received them, and as the paper says, “Nodes express their acceptance of the block by working on creating the next block in the chain, using the hash of the accepted block as the previous hash.”

There is no such thing as a full node that does not mine blocks.

In 2008, I published a number of methodologies that have been used within certain circles of law enforcement to do a mapping of systems forensically [2]. The concept of running an anonymous cash system through blockchain is one that is simple to control. It was designed in such a way. You see, although users can pseudonymously send transactions through VPNs and TOR, nodes cannot operate anonymously. The system is designed such that nodes that are building the ledger need to interact in a manner that leaves a trail.

Any anonymous blockchain system requires validation systems. The scale in a small world. The alternative is easy to “sybil.” I will be explaining the process behind it later in the year. If Bitcoin was to be a mesh network, it would require at least 11 and up to 30 hops to act in a distributed manner. An attacker, a government, or another party needs at most 2 to 3 hops worth of control to subvert the network. The Raspberry-Pi mentality does not even see that they make it incredibly simple to subvert the network. In order to subvert a mesh network, hardware worth around US$2000 is required. Such a system can create unbounded forking leaving the network percolation to branch endlessly or simply create an unbounded number of double spends.

Bitcoin solves the issue in a simple way: nodes become commercial.

I was explicit and clear with the point. Users do not run their own Usenet servers, they don’t generally run their own SMTP servers, and the idea of money is not to have some wizard-hatted technocrat dictating how everyone needs to run the same system. The system works because it is competitive. It’s what distribution means. It is why it is decentralised.

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Bitcoin, any blockchain, is merely decentralised through competition. A system such as Ethereum is one entity. It is a loose partnership that is constructed at best as a formal partnership and at worst as a common-law partnership with unlimited liability. The reality here is that saying you are a distributed group means nothing under the law. If three people start acting together to create and implement software, and they don’t have a corporation or some other limited liability structure around them, then they are still a single enterprise, a partnership, and the worst part of it is that an unlimited-liability partnership leaves all parties equally liable.

When I said, “The current system where every user is a network node is not the intended configuration for large scale,” I don’t know how much clearer I could actually have been. As it says in my earlier post, “The more burden it is to run a node, the fewer nodes there will be. Those few nodes will be big server farms.”

Here is the thing: There is no other way that it can work in a small-world network. There is no other way that it can work in the Bitcoin node structure. Bitcoin is merely secure if the network distance for the miners, that is the nodes, remains at a level of D

Everybody is not a bank in Bitcoin. Banks offer services such as loans and the investigation into capital, and how it will be allocated in a manner that exceeds the nature of any automated system currently in existence. With Bitcoin, people have a method of securely storing cash. They can of course also tokenise many other goods and services allowing for more instantaneous, open, and secure trades to occur. It is a system where people cannot lose invoices and where negotiations can be stored permanently.

The authorities can easily determine the requirement for online service providers (OSPs) to handle the filtering of access in the reporting of such access to banned services. In 2008, I studied law at the University of Northumbria, Newcastle. I completed an LLM in international commercial law, and specialised in Internet intermediary liability. It was part of the key to Bitcoin. I needed to create a node system that allowed control yet freedom. What people fail to understand is that Bitcoin is about balance and neutrality. A set protocol is one that allows OSPs to compete fairly in all of the major jurisdictions globally. I have not considered North Korea. If you take the time to read the document that was my dissertation [5], you will note that I came to the conclusion that the simplest path was to restrict the end-state OSPs and hence the local jurisdictional node. In such a manner, individual governments can choose what they do and do not allow. Everything can be stored online, but not everyone can access it.

In the case of nodes, access is easily restricted, and ISPs can be required to filter certain types of access.

Personally, I do not like the idea of censoring open communication, but I do not believe in anonymous communications. It may, of course, seem ironic.

If made illegal (as I argue that AnonCoin already is within the USA), than an associated node is by nature illegal. It no longer matters how much is being transferred or even if the node operator is poor or rich; the simple fact of the matter is that it becomes a criminal act. Some of the methodologies I developed when working on tracing peer-to-peer networks can be used here. Nodes can’t hide in Bitcoin, and likewise, any blockchain with a proof-of-stake or any other thing that AnonCoin could possibly contemplate remains the same if it is developed using blockchain technology.

Now, such is the incredibly important part of any blockchain technology: nodes cannot hide. Bitcoin requires that the commercial nodes, the miners, the systems that run the network and not the users are available. They can come and go, but at the end of the day, they need to connect to and become part of the network. For the same reason, they can be detected and easily mapped. The one real problem that cannot be solved in all of it is that Bitcoin requires a stationary end node. If the requirement changes, the economic ability to earn diminishes. More importantly, nodes distribute to known addresses. They form mappings in the creation of an ultra small world map. It leads to a system that has the centre of the Mandela network acting to ensure ultra fast consensus.

It is not the 10-minute settlement time but rather at scale milliseconds which secure transactions.

A node cannot operate as a commercial miner through TOR. If it uses a VPN service, it can be traced. The users connecting to the network, the individuals sending payments to merchants, they can maintain a level of anonymity and privacy conducive to the level of exchange that is being conducted. Even if they don’t divulge their identity, they can retain an invoice in an immutable form that cannot be exploited by criminal activity. Such is the real promise of Bitcoin. It is the balance between privacy and the need for safety and security whilst giving up neither. It is putting a cost on the tragedy of the commons and ensuring that privacy is valued.

The myth of AnonCoin is that it can operate anonymously. That nodes can operate at scale without being tracked or recorded or blocked. It is not the case. The only manner in which blockchain, the reality being bitcoin, but for the purposes here I will say any blockchain, can operate is within the existing legal framework. As soon as it divulges and acts without and outside such a framework, it is simple to block. And once the block occurs, the value diminishes.

No system based on proof of work can scale without value and nodes that can act validly within the network structure and within the law. There are other issues with proof of stake, and it can be used in the creation of a criminal system, but I will detail other flaws in time.

At its heart, this is what it’s about. I really don’t care if you commit a crime or not, if you buy and sell drugs or not, but what I do care about is that you have just left an evidence trail. If you do not like the law, lobby the parliament, become an MP or, if you’re in the USA, a congressman or whatever else, and seek to change it. I have zero tolerance for people who think that rebellion is an option in a working society, or rebelling for the sake of rebelling. In some societies, rebellion is an option. Bitcoin does not discriminate between government and citizen; it places the same transparency measures on both, and seeks to keep both honest.

Bitcoin scales perfectly well. The problem that those in Core and associated systems see is not with scaling but rather in the creation of a system that forgets. The entire path taken by the BTC Core development team in subverting what was Bitcoin into an air-dropped alternative system has been focused on creating something designed to allow drug markets. Simply put, there has been no other mainstream focus at any point since the collapse of Silk Road. Bitcoin is the truth machine.

It is what some people hate and seek to subvert.

They want something without records. Privacy is not enough. Privacy works when people are honest. What they seek is a system leaving records to be lost and one that allows criminals to breach the law with impunity. They want a system that allows terrorist funding, paedophilia, and everything else under the rocks that never see the sun. Bitcoin does not allow such things in any form.

Proof of stake

I’m sorry to inform you that proof of stake was actually one of the first things I investigated. It is a retrogression. Proof of work is far more advanced. I first looked at the idea of staking owners at around 2001/2, and spent a lot of wasted time investigating a dead end. Proof of stake is not stable. We have a proof-of-stake-based system in the US Fed right now. It’s not a stable form of money. Some will argue that the commodity theory of money has been discredited, but I will argue that even state-based fiat money forms a commodity function. It’s one that is driven through fear, yet it remains a commodity. It has a dual function as both an informational commodity and a taxation-based one. With a requirement to pay tax, it is an exchange good against such a rate. I’ll expand on it later in another post, leaving it to say that even fiat money forms commodity-based money.

I have posted before on proof of stake. I will dictate the mathematics behind the system and why it must fail later in the year. It will be in a peer-reviewed journal. I am not interested in helping you make fewer mistakes earlier, and I’m very happy for people to continue down such a road for now. I never said I was nice.

The simple end is that we don’t end up with an honest distributed system using any proof-of-stake model. More importantly, the consensus structure of the network does not evolve. In any model, proof of stake fails to form a consensus based on a small-world network, and the result of it is that it becomes simple to attack. I don’t expect you to take my word for it, but you have to wait till I publish; and very very simply put, I have no interest in saving the people going down such a trail.

For now…

Over the year, I plan to detail everything about Bitcoin. Little by little in my own time frame. Is not really my problem if you don’t like it, but such is how life works. If anyone should not like the court system, it would likely be me. Yet I understand it is the best we have. Following the Wolfe reforms, the legal system in the UK has improved quite a lot, but the fact is that it is still expensive and not open to the majority of people. The implementation of court-based signatures and electronic arbitration increases the democratisation of justice. It is something that is important to me. Justice is not about crime. It is ensuring that society works and is free.

References:

[2] Wright, C. (2008) “Advanced Methods to Remotely Determine Application Versions” NS2008 LV, USA.

[3] Newman, M. E. J. & Watts, D. J. Scaling and percolation in the small-world network model., Phys. Rev. E 60, 7332 (1999).

Биткоин не анонимен и это нормально

Что если сегодня я вам скажу, что первая криптовалюта Биткоин никогда не была анонимной? Более того, она и не создавалась как анонимная.

Для большинства людей, которые сейчас оказались глубоко погружены в тему Блокчейна и криптовалют, был такой момент, после которого, человек загорался идеей новой технологии. Это озарение появлялось на фоне представлений о пользе революционной технологии. А также реальной ее силе, которая способна очень сильно изменить человечество. У многих из нас, как только эти основы технологии были поняты, возникло непреодолимое желание погрузиться в новый тренд, под названием Блокчейн.

Это стремление изучать и развиваться в новой отрасли очень важно. Но для тех, кто находится вне индустрии, очень трудно посмотреть на нее без скептицизма и сомнений. Технологию Блокчейн не легко понять, с каждым днем она становится более изощренной и специализированной. К примеру концепция отсутствия надзорного, контролирующего центра в сообществе является серьезным препятствием для понимания и принятия. Это различие между ноукоинерами и крипто-энтузиастами очень четкое, как между теми, кто любит кинзу и теми, кто ее терпеть не может. Сейчас осталось мало людей, которые все еще не определились со своей позицией.

Это все наглядно иллюстрирует, что порог для входа высок, а FUD-машина все еще работает. Также существуют некоторые стереотипы, которые искажают то, как общество и СМИ воспринимают криптовалюты и Блокчейн. Так например, существует распространенное общественное мнение, что основной принцип Биткоина — это анонимность. Как следствие, он используется для черных делишек в даркнете (dark net). И конечно, как и другие популярные мифы возникшие вместе с рождением Биткоина, анонимность биткоина — это миф. И разработчики Биткоина это отлично знали.

Первый блокчейн не должен был быть анонимным

Абсолютно нормально, если вы начнете изучение Биткоина и Блокчейна со здоровой долей скептицизма и сомнений. Особенно в начале вашего исследования. Отсутсвие контролирующего систему центра при проведении транзакций, требует от вас по сути доверия к этой технологии. Это создало некий дискомфорт в принятии технологии, особенно на ранней стадии. Именно тогда и появилось устойчивое мнение, что Биткоин — это анонимная криптовалюта, которую можно использовать для расчетов напрямую между пользователями (особенно на мировых черных рынках между преступниками).

! Один из первых докладов ФБР о Биткоине, просочившийся в сеть в 2020 году, назывался «Виртуальная Валюта Биткоин: Уникальные ее особенности создают проблемы в борьбе с преступностью» . Это хороший пример того, как силовые ведомства воспринимали Биткоин в то время. В этом отчете ФБР выражает озабоченность в связи с появлением Биткоина и его анонимностью, как «теоретически привлекательной технологии для террористов, отмывания денег и торговцев людьми». ФБР быстро определило возможные варианты использования Биткоина (в основном сомнительные), но при этом заявляло, что Биткоин не полностью анонимен. В доказательство проводилось исследование Дублинского Университета, в котором уделялось особое внимание тому, что анонимность Биткоина ограничена. Примерно в то же время, уже даже люди за пределами узкого круга разработчиков и ранних энтузиастов, начали понимать, что транзакции в сети Биткоина легко отслеживаются. И это на самом деле никогда не было секретом.

С самого первого дня появления Биткоина и публикации его Whitepaper, Сатоши Накамото очень тактично избегал любых заявлений о невозможности отслеживать транзакции. По факту понятие анонимности применялось только по отношению к публичному адресу пользователя (адресу кошелька). В whitepaper сказано «… приватность может быть сохранена путем нарушения цепочки отслеживания информации в другом месте: путем сохранения публичных ключей анонимными». Иными словами, анонимность Биткоина заканчивается на адресе вашего кошелька (публичном ключе). Адрес кошелька — это псевдоним в сети.

Псевдонимность, находится в том же поле, что и анонимность, и между ними есть тонкая, но существенная разница. Анонимность означает, что нет никакой возможности отследить действия и как-либо идентифицировать личность или группу лиц. Псевдонимность уже ближе к идентификации, так как позволяет назвать личность или группу лиц, пусть даже и скрытых за неким псевдонимом.

Например писатель Семьюэл Клеменс использовал псевдоним Марк Твен, когда подписывал свои произведения. Тем самым он сохранял свою реальную личность в секрете. Мистер пользовался псевдонимностью потому, что во время всей своей карьеры, скрывался под псевдонимом. Однако, это не было настоящей анонимностью, даже когда личность Клеменса была открыта публике, его псевдоним Марк Твен стал частью истории и культуры.

Точно также, как псевдоним Сэмюэля Клеменса, мы создаем публичные ключи в сети биткоина, которые также становятся псевдонимами. Истина заключается в том, что биткоин никогда не задумывался, как средство сохраняющее анонимность пользователей.

Сложно спрятаться за псевдонимом

В краткой истории Биткойна были некоторые яркие примеры, которые акцентируют идею открытых ключей Биткойна как псевдонима и демонстрируют трудности, с которыми сталкивались некоторые ранние пользователи, пытаясь спрятаться за ширмой. История Росса Ульбрихта (Ross Ulbricht) и его социального проекта, который назывался Silk Road — это хороший пример того, что анонимность Биткоина ограничена.

Росс Ульбрихт, используя псевдоним Dread Pirate Roberts, создал легендарный, печально известный ресурс Silk Road в той части интернета, которая называется Dark Web. В то время, Биткоин был единственной возможностью для сообщества Silk Road проводить какие-либо финансовые расчеты между собой. Одноранговая платежная система очень хорошо сочеталась с атмосферой крипто-анархизма, которую поддерживал Ульбрихт и его большое сообщество. По иронии судьбы, именно Биткоин и блокчейн, вывели следствие на Ульбрихта.

Во время судебного процесса, ФБР удалось идентифицировать и отследить в блокчейне Биткоина, более 3500 транзакций. Эти транзакции в итоге приводили к кошельку установленному на личном ноутбуке Ульбрихта Samsung 700z.

В случае с Silk Road, анонимность Биткоина не работала, так как она закончилась на публичном адресе кошелька. Псевдонимом Росса Ульбрихта был его адрес кошелька (публичный ключ), который легко отслеживался, а вся история транзакций по нему была, как на ладони. Успех расследования ФБР заключался лишь в том, чтобы доказать,что именно Ульбрихт являлся владельцем кошелька.

Что если мне нужна анонимная криптовалюта?

Существует целый ряд перспективных блокчейн проектов, которые на первое место ставят вопрос конфиденциальности. Их архитектура улучшена в плане приватности транзакций и от псевдонимов они продвинулись к почти полной анонимности. Кстати, мы подготовили подробное исследование всех анонимных криптовалют.

Анонимные блокчейн проекты постепенно вытесняют не анонимный Биткоин во многих направлениях, где он раньше был королем. Эти изменения происходят в основном из за потребности тех сообществ, где нужна настоящая анонимность. Обычные пользователи начинают все больше понимать ограниченную анонимность биткоина и присматриваться к таким проектам, как Zcash, Bytecoin и Monero.

Новые анонимные криптовалюты стремятся полностью скрыть всю информацию. Начиная от данных транзакций и заканчивая публичными ключами (адресами кошельков). Реестры в таких сетях скрыты, что исключает возможности связи транзакции с конкретным кошельком.

В случае многих приватных криптовалют, анонимность сохраняется, даже если они используют публичные ключи. Это достигается за счет полного шифрования всех транзакций в блокчейне. Попробуйте посмотреть на происходящее в блокчейне с помощью сервисов типа Blockchain Explorer и вы обнаружите, что в реестре приватных криптовалют абсолютно все данные скрыты или зашифрованы.

Посмотрите, например, как устроен блокчейн Monero. Вместо привычных данных каждой транзакции, вы увидите строчку «Приватная транзакция». Эти данные недоступны смертным людям, но в блокчейне все работает идеально.

Заключение

Конфиденциальность — это фундаментальный ресурс, который в настоящее время обратно коррелирует между темпами его роста и его общественной ценностью. Иными словами, он становится более важен, чем раньше, так как мы к нему привыкаем.

Вопрос приватности встает так остро именно благодаря технологиям, которые выводят отношения в обществе на новый уровень, который мы не знали до этого. Централизация угрожает всем, даже если вы не заботитесь о защите своей конфиденциальности, а технологии, такие как блокчейн, являются верхушкой айсберга в наборах решений, которые нам нужны.

Биткоину дали задачу анонимности, для решения которой он не был создан. Но уже есть перспективные блокчейн проекты, которые решают этот вопрос более успешно.

Five Legitimate Reasons to Use Anonymous Bitcoin

‘Shady economics’ has become a buzzword associated with bitcoin.

Newbies, read through a pile of content about covert actions people use bitcoin for: illegal trade and firearms and tax evasion. Presented in a such a way, bitcoin tends to be something highly suspicious for the most of the people, so they decide to stay away from it.

The good news is bitcoin’s ‘criminal nature’ is a myth.

In this article you will find five legitimate reasons why you should forget about shady economics and mason lizards from the illuminati government to show the great potential of bitcoin for personal use.

Bitcoin Bona Fide

Bitcoin is a digital currency based on the blockchain technology. It has no central management, doesn’t directly depend on any government regulation and uses advanced cryptography to provide trust between two or more anonymous users. ‘Coins’ are stored in the global blockchain network, instead of the traditional local depository of the bank. Transaction data is automatically divided by blocks and mixed with other global transactions, making it a die-hard for all kinds of faking or information scamming.

Looks a bit scary, huh? Luckily, anonymity and participating in criminal activities are optional. In simple words, if you don’t like being a criminal, just don’t do anything wrong! The truth is bitcoin is more like the real hard cash. Instead of focusing on the dark sides there are at least five great advantages that an individual might have by using bitcoin on daily basis.

1) It’s Fast, Doesn’t Require a Visit to a Branch and Has Lower Fees

Picture an ordinary international bank money transfer with USD as a default currency. What you need to do is to come to the bank (usually between 9 a.m. and 18 p.m.), give them money and fill out the recipient’s address or other transaction details. Then the recipient has to wait for a few days for the transaction to be cleared and settled.

Bitcoin transaction speed is not limited by business hours, because it’s fully automatic: the blockchain system insures account consistency and funds security. This is the best time to say ‘no’ to boring bank lobbies and enjoy instant transactions along with the morning cup of coffee.

While a credit card can also give you similar instant transfers, bitcoin has much lower fees due as it is not connected to any central administrator except miners (users that confirm your transaction, making it actually happen).

To send or receive payments both parties should have an active web wallet that is accessible from desktops and smartphones and both should know the public address he/she uses as a destination.

2) Chargebacks are Impossible

Since bitcoin is anonymous and all money are stored in the network, there’s no way to cancel the payment done. It seems like a giant flaw, because everyone has already imagined the situation when the online shop misses your purchase and refuses to give money back.

Would your payment be refunded? No.

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Is that bad? Well, depends on how to look on it: while the absence of an effective chargeback mechanism creates a wall for clients, the same wall helps to defend the network from chargeback frauds. This is a criminal act, when the fraudster sends the payment, receives goods and then cancels the transaction.

No chargebacks means no attempts to use them to trick you.

3) Bank for Unbanked

Sitting with a cup of hot tea in a London street cafe and writing about bitcoin’s pros and cons is nice, but let’s look at someone who’s not so happy. Governments in different parts of the world can make controversial economic decisions, which might bury the national currency in less than a year. The ongoing crisis in Venezuela is one example. A stable banking system can’t work properly in such conditions and that’s where the black market of exchanges appear.

Bitcoin stability is guaranteed by other users – as far as they believe it’s worth something, it is. There are also countries that still don’t have any stable banking system adopted at all and over 2 billion adults still remain unbanked. Reliable and accessible from anywhere, bitcoin can be an access to the secure and stable banking system for everyone.

4) Advanced Payment Security

It’s hard to compare fiat currencies with the decentralized from the point of security, because we don’t know all the measures each bank undertakes to protect its networks. But as long as your money is in third-party custody, the risk grows. The main difference with bitcoin is that your money is in your hands all the time, so its security doesn’t depend on anyone except you. With the emergence of bitcoin debit cards, it’s even easier to spend coins in shops that don’t accept coins with bitcoin debit cards.

It’s the good news for merchants too, since they don’t have to wait 3 to 5 banking days to receive the payment, like with a credit card and moreover protected against credit card fraud attacks.

5) Provides Security for Merchants

Another benefit for merchants and customers is the privacy and personal data security. No matter what data protection laws are being adopted year by year, private data leaks from online platforms happen on a schedule. Internal fraud by bank employees that sell the customer data, spammers or scammers drive this leaks..

Bitcoin user details are much harder to track, since all the information you send to the public is the 26 or 35-character wallet address. So, it’s impossible for spammers and scammers to parse the website or bribe the merchant employees to get access to your personal data. This eventually solves the spam problem once and forever. By using bitcoins you’re adding a security level against using your personal data for blackmailing and theft.

More Bitcoin Geeks are Expected in 2020

As you can see from this article, bitcoin can be used on a daily basis without provoking a frantic desire to perform criminal actions.

Moreover it has at least five advantages over fiat currencies: its speed, direct control over money, advanced security, spam-free merchant platforms and the opportunity to have a bank account for those who live far from the global banking system. Personally, I think that the best thing Bitcoin gives you is a financial freedom and flexibility.

It’s time for us all to reconsider the attitude towards bitcoin. The exchange rates are growing higher day-by-day, so if you’ve ever thought of buying some, now is the perfect chance to do it.

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